This page will walk through a WEP attack procedure using Aircrack on Kali Linux. I tested this out on my home router by switching its encryption to WEP, and I had cracked the WEP passkey a whopping 3 minutes later. Here's how.
Related: WEP cracking without any connected clients Aircrack/WEP Cracking No Clients
First I'll walk you through the need-to-know basics. Then we'll dive into some command line on Kali and see how to do this.
- 1 The Background
- 2 The Hardware
- 3 The Software
- 4 The Procedure
- 4.1 Set Your Router to WEP
- 4.2 Check Your Wireless Devices
- 4.3 Switch Wireless Device to Monitor Mode
- 4.4 Scan Networks
- 4.5 Sheep Connects to the Network
- 4.6 Start the Attack
- 5 Conclusion
When you configure your home router, you've got a myriad of different options for your router security protocol. Some of these link into business systems, some are for home routers, and a few are marked as "less secure." (This tutorial will show you precisely why!) Each of these different security protocols is simply a way for the traffic that's being sent between the router and your computer to be encrypted, so that no one else can read it. But as with any cryptosystem, the more information (wireless packets) an attacker has, the better able they are to attack the encryption. The less sophisticated that encryption, the less information the attacker needs.
Weakness 1: WEP
With WEP 64 bit, the passphrase is a five-character key - pretty easy to crack. This means an attacker can listen to traffic on the network, and even though it's encrypted, still use it to determine the passphrase by brute force.
The simplicity of the WEP security protocol is the first weakness that this attack takes advantage of.
Weakness 2: Router Requests
While the WEP encryption protocol is pretty easy to crack, it requires a lot of packets - a LOT of packets - so by itself, the first weakness isn't very useful, since it might still take days just to gather enough information to crack the passphrase.
Enter weakness number two: even if you're not on a network, you can still send packets to the router. By spoofing the MAC address of a device that's already connected to the network, you can confuse the router by grabbing a packet, duplicating it, and sending a flood of these duplicate packets "from" a device on the target computer (actually sent from your computer). The router will then respond to that flood of packets with a flood of its own response packets. Since all of these packets are all encrypted, you've just tricked the router into giving you a much faster source of encrypted packets with which to crack the WEP passphrase.
You'll need three components for this attack: a target router running WEP encryption, a laptop running the attack on Kali, and a third party sheep (client) that will connect to the WEP network and make this attack possible.
As mentioned above, for this attack you'll need a device running Kali Linux. The steps for putting your wireless card in monitoring mode are slightly different between Kali 1 and Kali 2.
You'll also need a working wireless network device. Based on my many Kali adventures in wireless USB dongle land, I recommend Panda brand wireless USB adapters, and using the wicd network manager (do not use the built-in Gnome Network Manager!).
This attack will utilize Aircrack, which comes with Kali Linux (it's one of the top 10 Kali programs!).
Set Your Router to WEP
The first step is to change your router's settings so that it uses the WEP security protocol.
Check Your Wireless Devices
Once you've got your WEP wireless network, open up your Kali computer. You can check the wireless devices available:
Since I was running Kali on a MacBook, I had a built-in wireless device
wlan0 from Broadcom that's a closed-source piece of shite, and I had a Panda Wireless USB dongle
Switch Wireless Device to Monitor Mode
The next step is to use Aircrack to put your wireless card into monitoring mode. You can also change your MAC before bringing the device online.
$ iwconfig $ ifconfig wlan0 down $ macchanger -r wlan0 # optional $ iwconfig wlan0 mode monitor $ ifconfig wlan0 up $ airodump-ng wlan0
Your monitoring device will still be named
wlan0 (you can change the last command to call it
wlan0mon if you want).
Now we can scan available networks and find our WEP router.
$ airmon-ng $ ifconfig wlan2 down $ macchanger -r wlan2 # optional $ ifconfig wlan2 up $ airmon-ng start wlan2 $ airodump-ng wlan2
This may issue some warnings. What this command will do is drop your
wlan2 device and replace it with a
wlan2mon device. From this point forward, we'll be issuing commands using that
Now we can scan available networks and find our WEP router.
Now we'll scan available networks with Aircrack:
$ airodump-ng wlan2mon
This will give us a list of wireless access points, their SSIDs, their channels, and their MAC addresses. This is precisely what we'll need to attack our WEP router.
Sheep Connects to the Network
Before or while you are monitoring the network, you will have a new node connect to the network - the third party you're connecting. Suppose it's a hapless sheep streaming Pandora. The sheep joins the WEP network, and packet traffic begins.
Start the Attack
Now you've got your target router's MAC address and channel number, and you have someone on the network sending packets. You're ready to perform the attack.
The attack will consist of packets sent to the sheep who joined the network and is listening to some music. These packets will be fake deauthorization packets. The sheep will think it has been kicked off the network and will re-send its credentials to anyone listening.
You'll be opening a couple of windows on your Kali box.
Window 1: Monitor Traffic on Network
In window number 1, start monitoring the traffic happening on the router with BSSID AA:BB:CC:DD:EE on channel XX:
$ airodump-ng -d AA:BB:CC:DD:EE -c XX -w aircrack_output wlan2mon
$ airodump-ng --bssid AA:BB:CC:DD:EE --channel XX -w aircrack_output wlan2mon
which should result in something like this:
Let's break that command down:
This program listens to packet traffic on the network and dumps it all into a
.cap capture file. This is the raw packet dump that you'll use to crack the WEP passphrase. Type
man airodump-ng for help.
-d AA:BB:CC:DD:EE --bssid AA:BB:CC:DD:EE
This is the MAC address of the router that you're targeting. Since there may be multiple wireless networks around, airodump-ng needs to know what wireless traffic to capture. This lets it know to capture all traffic involving the base station with this MAC address.
-c XX --channel XX
Here we specify the channel number that we found using
airmon-ng. Should be an integer from 1-12.
This will dump the results of our packet capture to aircrack_output-01.cap (and will increment the file number each time this command is run).
This is the name of our wireless device.
The output of this command is refreshed every few seconds. As new devices join the network, they'll show up on this screen, as will statistics about their packet traffic.
Here's a network with no traffic and no clients connected:
and here's the same network, but with a connected client:
Window 2: Increase Network Traffic with Spoofed Packets
The second stage of this attack involves sending spoofed packets. These packets look like they're coming from the device that's connected - but they'll actually come from the Kali computer that's carrying out the attack. The router responds to these spoofed packets as though they're real, flooding the network with traffic and giving us the increase in traffic that we need to sniff out the WPA passphrase.
To do this, we need two pieces of information: the MAC address of the router, and the MAC address of the client that we're spoofing.
The first is easy: we already have the MAC address of the router.
The second piece of information will show up in the
airodump-ng command window, where we'll see our client show up when they connect to the network. Their MAC address will be shown.
Once we have our information, we run the command:
$ aireplay-ng -3 -b AA:BB:CC:DD:EE -h AB:BC:CD:DE:EF wlan2mon
This spoofs packets to look like they're coming from AB:BC:CD:DE:EF and sends them to AA:BB:CC:DD:EE. It then floods the router with these fake packets, and forces the router to respond with its own flood of packets, giving Aircrack more information to work with when trying to crack the passphrase.
Window 3: Crack the WEP Passphrase
Now, we wait a few minutes for
aireplay-ng to do its thing and for
airodump-ng to capture the results.
Once you have enough frames, in a third window, you'll crack the passphrase using the network capture
.cap file generated by
$ aircrack-ng aircrack_output-01.cap
and you should see the resulting WEP passphrase printed out in plain text!
There's my test passphrase: "billy"
This was a warm-up exercise for me to learn some network spelunking and figure out how to use Aircrack on Kali.
This is part of the Kali Top 10 page, where I'm assembling notes for each of the top 10 Kali tools.