From charlesreid1

Algorithm for finding permutations of subsets in lexicographic order, no recursion

Here are the steps:

To find permutations, in lexicographic order:

1. Sort the list of items and print this as the first permutation

2. Let i be the last index such that input[i] < input[i+1] (if no such index, we are done)

3. Let j be the last index such that input[i] < input[j]

4. Swap input[i] with input[j]

5. Reverse input[i+1] through input[input.length-1]

Example

Pass the flag "CHARLES"

First permutation is sorted: ACEHLRS

Second string is ACEHLSR

Third string is ACEHRLS

etc.

Code

See https://charlesreid1.com:3000/cs/java/src/master/stacks-queues-deques/subset/StringPermutations.java

the main method/test

import java.io.*;
import java.util.*;

class Oops extends ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException {}

public class StringPermutations {

	public static void main(String[] args) {
		// Start with strings, then move to generics
		String theString = "CHARLES";
		LinkedQueue<String> permutations = stringPermutations(thestring);
		System.out.println(permutations.size());
	}

utility methods

Had to implement two utility methods:

	public static void swap(char[] input, int i, int j) {
		char t = input[i];
		input[i] = input[j];
		input[j] = t;
	}

	public static void reverseFrom(char[] input, int startIndex) {
		// prolly shoulda used a stack.

		int len = input.length;
		int n = len - startIndex - 1;
		// if n odd, ignores middle index
		// if n even, swaps exactly half
		for(int k=0; k<(n/2); k++) {
			int ix = startIndex + k;
			int jx = len-1-k;
			swap(input,ix,jx);
		}
	}


Core algorithm

Finally, the core swapping algorithm, applied to char arrays:

	public static LinkedQueue<String> stringPermutations(String s_input) {
		LinkedQueue<String> q = new LinkedQueue<String>();

		// Save useful info
		int n = s_input.length();

		char[] input = s_input.toCharArray();
		Arrays.sort(input);

		// First is sorted string
		q.enqueue(new String(input));

		boolean done = false;

		try {

			// Loop until we reach end
			while(!done) {
				// Step 1:
				// let i be the last index such that input[i] < input[i+1]
				// (if no such index, i=0 and we are done)
				int i = -1;
				for(int k=0; k<(n-1); k++) {
					if(input[k] < input[k+1]) {
						i = k;
					}
				}
				if(i<0) {
					// No such index, we are done
					done = true;
					break;
				}

				// Step 2:
				// let j be the last index such that input[i] < input[j]
				int j = -1;
				for(int k=i+1; k<n; k++) {
					if(input[i] < input[k]) {
						j = k;
					}
				}

				// Step 3:
				// swap i and j
				swap(input,i,j);

				// Step 4:
				// reverse i+1 thru length-1
                reverseFrom(input, i+1);

				q.enqueue(new String(input));
			}

		} catch(ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException e) {
			System.out.println("OOPSIE");
		}
		return q;
	}
}

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