From charlesreid1

Chapter 5: Radio Signals and Equipment

Section 5.1: Signal Review

  • a radio signal at one frequency, at constant power, is CW - continuous wave
  • adding information to a signal (via changes in frequency, phase angle, or amplitude) is modulation
  • the method of modulation is asignal's mode
  • an unmodulated signal carries no information
  • to recover information from a signal is demodulation
  • voice mode/phone mode - voice/speech is information
  • data mode/digital mode - data is information
  • analog - information can be understood by human
  • digital - information can be understood by computer


  • amplitude modulation
  • information contained int he signal's envelope, or maximum instantaneous power for each cycle
  • AM signals have a carrier and 2 sidebands
  • AM signals with the carrier removed are double sideband DSB
  • AM signals with one sideband and the carrier removed are single sideband SSB

angle modulation

  • varying freq to add info is frequency modulation FM
  • amt that signal frequency varies is called deviation
  • phase angle can be varied with respect to reference phase, this is phase modulation
  • FM/PM can be decoded with same circuits
  • FM: changes amount of time signal takes to make a 360 degree cycle

PM - changes relative phase difference between signal and reference phase

  • FM and PM signals have one carrier, multiple sidebands
  • FM/PM are constant power (modulated or not)


  • definition of bandwidth - width outside of which the average power of the signal is attenuated by 26 dB below the mean power
  • typical bandwidth values:
    • TV - 6 MHz
    • AM - 6 kHz
    • FM - 5-16 kHz
    • SSB - 2-3 kHz
    • Digital - 50-300 Hz
    • CW - 100-300 Hz

Section 5.1 Summary

  • The process that changes the phase angle of an RF wave to convey information is phase modulation
  • the process that changes instantaneous frequency of RF wave to convey information is frequency modulation
  • Instantaneous power level of RF signal used to convey information in amplitude modulation AM
  • The phone emission with the narrowest bandwidth is SSB single sideband

Section 5.2: Radio's Building Bloccks

Oscillators, mixers, multipliers, modulators


  • produce a pure sine wave, as close to 1 frequency as possible
  • oscillator has two parts:
    • amplifier to increase gain
    • feedback circuit to route some output back into input
  • if product of amplifier gain and amt of feedback are > 1, circuit's output will be self-sustaining - this is called oscillation
  • oscillator output frequency can be fixed or varied

fixed frequency oscillators FFOs: 3 types

  • RC (resistors/capacitors)
  • LC (inductors/capacitors)
  • crystal (acts like LC, orders of magnitude more precise)

variable frequency oscillators VFOs: 3 types

  • LC circuit with variable capacitor
  • PLL phase locked loop
  • DDS direct digital synthesizer (software-controlled, has stability of crystal oscillator)


  • changing frequency of signal is key function in RX/TX
  • this is what mixer does
    • in: f1, f2
    • out: f1 +/- f2
  • mixers combine 2 frequencies f1 and f2
  • combine to form f1 + f2 and f1 - f2
  • heterodyning - the mixing of 2 frequencies (f1 +/- f2)
  • input f1 is called RF input (transmitted signal)
  • input f2 is called local oscillator LO (locally-generated reference signal)
  • outputs from mixer are called mixing products


  • this unit creates a harmonic of the input frequency (multiplies by an integer)
  • low-frequency oscillators are easier/smaller to build, so run low-frequency oscillator signal through a multiplier to make a VHF/UHF signal


  • modulators add information to a carrier signal
  • information added to a signal as amplitude, frequency, or phase variations
  • input 1 is carrier input f1
  • input 2 is modulating input f2
  • output is f1 modulated by f2

Amplitude Modulators:

  • first created by varying the power supply voltage of a CW signal
  • as voltage changes, amplituded of output signal's envelope follows along
  • also called plate modulation, or drain modulation, or collector modulation
    • plate modulation: voltage being varied connects to a vacuum tube
    • drain modulation - voltage being varied connect to transistor's drain
    • collector modulation - voltage being varied connects to a transistor's collector
  • modulation transformer then adds/subtracts amplified voice signal to power supply voltage
  • AM circuits cannot generate SSB signals
  • AM, double sideband can be generated by balanced modulator
  • balanced modulator:
    • input 1: carrier signal f1
    • input 2: modulating signal f2
    • output signal: double sideband f1 +/- f2
    • the pairs of sidebands, above and below, are due to heterodyning, f1 +/- f2
  • DSB - double sideband requires a balanced modulator, so the carrier frequency will cancel out
  • AM - requires an unbalanced modulator, so the carrier frequency will survive heterodyning

Frequency and Phase Modulators:

  • FM - frequency of modulated signal changes with modulating signal's amplitude
  • PM - frequency of modulated signal (deviation of signal) is proportional to modulating signal's amplitude and frequency
  • FM/PM sound the same, demodulated with same circuit
  • angle modulation performed with a reactance modulator
  • two types of reactance modulators:
    • FM reactance modulators
    • PM reactance modulators
  • FM reactance modulator: amp feeds into reactance modulator, output is frequency modulated output
  • PM reactance modulator: amp and fixed-frequency oscillator feed into reactance modulator, output is phase modulated output

Section 5.2 Summary

  • if a 3 kHz LSB signal has a carrier frequency of 7.178 MHz, it occupies 7.175-7.178 MHz
  • if using 3 kHz USB signal on 20 m, how close to edge of band should carrier signal be? 3 kHz below edge of band
  • basic components of a sine wave oscillator are an amplifier and a feedback circuit with a filter
  • frequency of LC oscillator can vary depending on component ratings - individual inductances and capacitances
  • a transceiver controlled by a direct digital synthesizer is that you have stability of a crystal, with variable frequency
  • a reactance modulator connected to RF amplifier stage generates phase modulation or frequency modulation
  • carrier suppression in SSB phone - the advantage over AM is that transmitter power can be used more efficiently (narrower bandwidth)
  • the receiver stage that combines a 14.250 MHz signal with a 13.795 MHz oscillator to produce a 455 kHz intermediate frequency is a mixer (heterodyning)
  • the mixing of two signals is called heterodyning
  • in a VHF/UHF transmitter (FM), the stage that generates a harmonic of a low-frequency signal is the multiplier

Section 5.3: Transmitter Structure

transmitters and receivers are assembled from the following building blocks:

am modes

  • CW, SSB, and AM are all types of amplitude-modulated signals
  • generated by same transmitter structure
  • analog transmitters: generate/modify signals with discrete electronic components
  • DSP/SDR transmitters perform these operations in software, on a microprocessor

CW transmitters

  • oscillator + amplifier
  • crystal oscillator restricts operating frequency, but is stable
  • variable frequency oscillator VFO controlled transmitter
  • oscillator may contain buffer amplifier to protect from chirps - rapid change in frequency (key-down periods due to power supply, or load changes)
  • output amplifier: two stages
    • driver stage
    • power amplifier stage
  • VFO transmitter, mixers used to change TX output frequency without changing VFO frequency range
  • schematic: VFO has a fixed range, fed into mixer. other feed into mixer is local oscillator - switch between three different crystals. the mixer output is sent to the filter, and combined with the keyer to send out a signal.

SSB transmitter:

  • same arrangement, but the VFO is now replaced with a microphone circuit
  • input to balanced modulator is carrier signal, plus microphone input
  • output is DSB signal, so filter is required to remove the undesired sideband
  • USB signals on 20 m, LSB on 80 and 40 m
  • mixer then converts signal to correct frequency
  • SSB transmitter can unbalance the modulator to generate AM signals
  • SSB signals: carrier must be reduced or suppressed to at least 40 dB below signal's peak power output, to prevent interference
  • output amplifier must be a linear amplifier, due to rapidly changing speech waveforms
  • nonlinear amplifier will distort speech
  • CW transmitter turns sine wave on/off, no need to be linear
  • SSB/AM stages must all reproduce input signal accurately, via mixing, filtering, amplifying
  • distortion in the transmit chain will create suprious signals, harmonics, mixing products, splatter
  • SSB bandwidth should be 3 kHz or smaller
  • AM bandwidth should be 6 kHz or smaller
  • on 60 m, USB signals hsould be 2.8 kHz or narrower

FM transmitters:

  • modulation and frequency changes work differently in FM TX than SSB/AM TX
  • less expensive implementation of FM:
    • generate FM signal at low frequency
    • multiply it to reach new band
  • for 2 m FM transmitter, modulated oscillator frequency is about 12 MHz, and multiplier selects 12th harmonic for transmission on 2 m (12 x 12 = 144 MHz)
  • To transmit a signal at 146.52 MHz, you must use the 12th harmonic, so the oscillator frequency must be adjusted to 146.52/12 = 12.21 MHz
  • Deviation from crystal is also multiplied
  • to control deviation of 146.52 MHz to within 5 kHz, crystal oscillator deviation should be 5/12 = .416 kHz = 416.7 Hz
  • good FCC practice requires bandwidth to be limited
  • Carson's Rule: BW = 2 x ( Peak Deviation + Highest Modulating Frequency)
  • If FM phone signal peak deviation is 5 kHz, and highest modulating frequency is 3 kHz, bandwidth = 2(5+3) = 16 kHz
  • Repeater coordinators use 20 kHz channel, fits 16 kHz wide signal comfortably
  • FM and PM phase modulation have constant power, so amplifier does not need to be linear

Signal quality:

  • keep signals intelligible and prevent excessive bandwidth
  • potential issues:
    • overmodulation - AM modes
    • Speech processing
    • Overdeviation - FM/AM
    • key clicks

Overmodulation - AM modes:

  • if amplitude of AM or SSB signal is varied excessively in response to modulating signal, result is overmodulation
  • overmodulation caused by speaking too loudly or by setting mic or audio gain too high
  • overmodulation causes spurious signals in nearby frequencies
  • modulation envelope - waveform created by connecting peaks of modulated signal
  • cutoff - transmitter is turned off instead of following the modulated signal (floor is too high)
  • flag-topping - transmitter reaches max output and cannot increase with signal (ceiling too low)
  • transmitted audio is distorted
  • spurious signals are created
    • distortion products
    • splatter
    • buckshot
  • properly adjust mic gain
  • use oscilloscope to check for clean signal at TX output
  • note transmitter settings and meter behavior, and oscilloscope images
  • flat topping happens when drive level to transmitter output or external amplifiers is beyond the max power level
  • carrier cutoff occurs when output signal is totally cut off between peaks
  • use normal speech/audio levels
  • use monitor function to check own signal
  • ALC - automatic level control
  • two tone test for transmitter linearity:
    • modulate signal with pair of non-harmonic tones
    • adjust transmitter and amplifier for output without any distortion

speech processing:

  • average power of SSB signal is low compared to CW
  • energy spread over wider spectrum
  • makes signals harder to understand through noise
  • speech processing increases average power of speech signal without distorting signal
  • some processors go between mic and radio, some go between radio and amplifier
  • compression - increases gain at low input levels, holds gain constant for hi input levels
  • amount of compression mesasured in dB
    • if low-level input signal is amplified to 10 dB more gain than high-level signal, you have 10 dB of compression
  • overprocesssing can also be an issue
  • processed signals require adjustment of transmitter modulation to avoid splatter
  • speech processing can increase background noise too
  • speech processing requires balance between increase in average power versus reduction in intelligibility


  • distortion in FM signals happening due to overmodulation
  • instead of envelope distortion, you get frequency deviation
  • overdeviation of FM signals will cause interference nearby, just like AM

Key clicks:

  • sharp transient clicking sounds heard on frequencies adjacent to CW signals
  • caused by transmitter turning on and off
  • reduce key clicks by adjusting TX configuration or by modifying keyer's control circuit
  • use oscilloscope to monitor CW waveform
  • leading adn trailing edges of CW output shoudl be 4-8 ms long, otherwise clicks will be generated from too-rapid on/off
  • waveform: key clicks will show up as signals in sidebands


  • hf operators use amps to strength signals
  • VHF/UHF amps are solid state bricks
  • HF amps use vacuum tube circuits
  • SSB modes require linear amplifier, so wave form input not distorted
  • amplifier circuit = stage
  • four classes of amplifier stages:
    • Class A - most linear, least efficient, on all the time, gain is limited
    • Class B - push-pull, pair of amplifiers switching on and off with cycle, good efficiency, linearity is possible
    • Class AB - midway between A and B, amplifier device is active for more than half of the cycle. Linearity not as good as Class A.
    • Class C - active for less than half of cycle, highest efficiecy, only work for CW and FM due to non-linearity

Tuning Linear Amplifier:

  • 3 primary operator adjustments
    • band
    • tune
    • load/coupling
  • band - configures input and output impedance matching or filter circuits
  • tune/load adjust components in output matching circuit (pi network)
  • start by setting the band switch properly
  • apply drive power to amplifier, wtch current meter
  • adjust tune control for a minimum setting, which indicates output matching circuit is resonant with input signal
  • adjust load to maximize output power, then adjust tune to plate-current minimum
  • this will enable max output power without max plate current being exceeded
  • drive power important, esp. for grid-driven amplifier circuits
  • too much drive causes excessive grid current
  • modern amplifiers have circuitry to protect circuits against excessive grid drive
  • operate amp according to mfg specs!
  • excessive drive power can also destroy solid state amplifiers with power transistors


  • for oscillations, positive feedback must lead to a gain > 1
  • HF amplifiers using triode tubes can become self-oscillating at VHF frequencies
  • main path for positive feedback in a grid-driven amplifier is inter-electrode capacitance (voltage difference between plate and control grid)
  • self-oscillation geneates spurious signals, can damage circuit components
  • neutalization: creates negative feedback at VHF - connect an out-of-phase signal with input signal to cancel unwanted positive feedback
  • neutralization is performed by connecting small variable apacitor between amplifier's output and input

Section 5.3 Summary

  • Transceiver operated in "split mode" means it transmits/receives on different frequencies
  • on a vacuum tube RF power amp, the plate current meter indicates correct plate tuning control when there is a dip or minimum
  • use ALC auto level control with RF power amp to reduce distortion due to excessive drive
  • in a solid state RF amplifier, excessive drive power can cause damage
  • the correct adjustment for the load/coupling control of a vacuum tube RF power amplifier is maximum power output - while not exceeding maximum plate current
  • transmitter keying circuits include time delay so that transmit-receive changeover operations can complete properly before RF output is allowed
  • common use for a dual VFO feature on transceiver is to allow monitoring of 2 different frequencies
  • to conduct a two-tone test, use two non-harmonically related signals
  • the two-tone test analyzes transmitter linearity
  • on modern transciever, speech processor is used to increase intelligibility of voice signals
  • for ssb phone signal, speech processor will increase average power
  • incorrectly adjusted speech processor will result in all of these:
    • distorted speech
    • splatter
    • excessive bkgd noise
  • efficiency of RF power amplifier is obtained by: Efficiency = (RF output power)/(DC input power)
  • Class A linear amplifier has the following characteristic: low distortion (but inefficient)
  • Class C power stage is used to amplify CW signals (not SSB, not AM, because nonlinear and distorts speech waveform)
  • Amplifier with highest efficiency is Class C, the most non-linear. The least efficient is Class A, the most linear.
  • The final amplifier stage of a transmitter is neutralized to eliminate self-oscillations
  • a linear amplifier is an amplifier that preserves the output wave form
  • in some ssb transmitters, a filter sits between the balanced modulator and the mixer
  • in some ssb transmitters, a balanced modulator combines the carrier oscillator and speech amp signals and sends the results to a filter
  • an effect of overmodulation is excessive bandwidth
  • to adjust proper ALC settings, on ssb, adjust transmit audio or mic gain
  • flat topping means signal distorition caused by excessive drive
  • an AM signal's modulation envelope is the waveform created by connecting peak values of modulated signal

Section 5.4: Receiver Structure

  • Receivers have many more adjustments than transmitters

Superheterodyne receivers:

  • mixing of signals is called heterodyning, leads to f1 +/- f2
  • superheterodyne receivers are sensitive to very weak signals
  • basic circuit:
    • RF signals are amplified and sent to mixer.
    • LO also sends signal to mixer.
    • signal at intermediate frequency IF is produced, filtered and demodulated.
  • iF filter removes nearby signals selectively
  • IF used because easier to tune filters/hi gain amps for single frequency
  • to convert signal at 14.250 to an IF of 455 kHz, local oscillator should be at 14.250 +/- .455 (13.795 or 14.705 MHz)
  • to cover entire 20 m band, 14.0 - 14.35, need local oscillator to tune from 13.545 MHz to 13.895 MHz
  • Demodulation of amplified IF signal is done by the product detector, a type of mixer
  • If AM being used, envelope detector is used for demodulation
  • Output of product or envelope detector is used to recover modulating signal
  • Product/envelope detector outputs audio signal
  • Front end of superheterodyne: antenna feeds into Rf amp. Mixer mixes signal from RF amp and from local oscillator. That is front end.
  • Front end processes weak signals at original frequency, so must owrk for wide frequency range and weak/strong signals
  • preselector sometimes used between antenna and RF amp to reject strong, out of band signals
  • these can fry a receiver if too strong, overwhelming circuitry
  • if additional sensitivity needed, preamplifier can be used
  • FM receivers: similar to superheterodyne, but key differences
  • FM only frequency matters
  • special non-linear amplifier called limiter replaces the linear IF amplifier
  • limiter: amplifies received signal until all amplitude modulation information (e.g., noise) is removed and only square wave remains, square wave of varying frequency
  • audio information: recovered by discriminator or quadrature detector (in place of the product detector in the AM/SSB/CW circuit)

Weaknesses of superheterodyne:

  • sum/diff operation means, two signals can generate the same mixing product f1 +/- f2
  • two input signal frequencies f1 will add and subtract from f2 to equal a given mixing product
  • image - undesired input signal frequency generating an internal frequency signal

DSP - digital signal processing

  • alternative to superheterodyne
  • converts signals from analog to digital and performs filtering/other functions mathematically in software
  • signal that has been operated on is co nverted back into analog for humans or characters for digital modes
  • DSP advantages: performance and flexibility
    • performance: complicated stuff, just as good as analog
    • flexibility: program anything you want
  • can react automatically to changes in circuitry based on signal
  • common DSP functions:
    • signal filtering
    • noise reduction
    • notch filtering
    • audio frequency equalizaiton

Removing interference:

  • notch filters - remove signals from very narrow frequency range (e.g., interfering carrier tone)
  • passband/IF shift filter - adjusts passband above/below carrier frequency to avoid interfering signals
  • reverse sideband - receive CW signals above/below displayed carrier frequency; signals below/above carrier will be filtered

Receiver Gain:

  • receivers use gain to make signals audible
  • too little/too much gain causes problems
  • RF gain control used to tune into signals
  • automatic gain control: vary gain to maintain constant signal volume
  • fast AGC for CW, slow AGC for voice
  • S-meter: signal gain, indicates voltage papplied to an amplifier
  • S-meter measured in S-units, 1 S-unit = 6 dB (4x increase in power)
  • S-meter midpoint of S-9: "S-9 +20 dB" = signal 20 dB (100 x) stronger than S-9 signal

Receiver linearity:

  • need linear receivers, or receiver will generate spurious signals
  • common form of non-linearity is overload or compression (a.k.a. front-end overload)
  • if signal is too strong for receiver to handle, distortion results
  • solution to overload:
    • filter out strong signals
    • reduce receiver gain with attenuator circuit
  • linearity also affected by preamp: preamp increases sensitivity to overload
  • noise blankers can confuse noise pulses with strong signals

Section 5.4 Summary

  • a notch filter is added to HF transceivers to reduce interference from carriers in receiver passband
  • when receiving CW signals, using reverse sideband reduces/eliminates interference from other signals
  • on a receiver, the IF shift control helps avoid interference from stations close to receive frequency
  • on an HF transciever, the attenuator function will reduce signal overload due to strong signals
  • a digital signal processor can be used to rpocess signals 9e.g., remove noise)
  • on a receiver, a DSP IF filter has advantage over analog filter in the design and bandwidth of filters
  • to perform automatic notching of interfering carriers, use a DSP filter
  • an S-meter measures voltage supplied to RF gain to maintain a certain signal strength level (S-meter measures signal strength)
  • a signal that reads "S-9 +20dB" or "20 dB over S9" will be +20 dB (or 100x) more powerful
  • an S-meter is found in a receiver
  • a single S-unit represents a 4x change in signal strength
  • transmitter power output must be increased x4 to raise S-meter from S8 to S9
  • Circuit that processes signals from the RF amp and the LO and then sends it on to the IF filter in a superheterodyne receiver is the mixer
  • the circuit that combines signals from IF amp and BFO (beat freq. osc.) and sends results on to AF amp is the product detector
  • the simplest superheterodyne receiver consists of:
    • HF oscillator
    • Mixer
    • Detector
  • The circuit in an FM receiver that convets signals from IF amp to audio is the disfriminator
  • For a digital signal processor IF filter, you need all of the following:
    • Analog to Digital
    • Digital to Analog
    • DSP chip
  • DSP filtering is accomplished by converting signal from analog to digital, and using digital processing
  • The term SDR refers to a radio in which most processing is done in software
  • If a receiver mixes a 13.800 MHz VFO with a 14.255 MHz received signal, and produces a 455 kHz intermediate frequency signal, the type of interference that a signal at 13.345 MHz will produce will be image interference/image response
    • f1 - LO = IF
    • LO - f2 = IF
    • This is imaging
  • it is important to match receiver bandwidth with operating mode because it gives the best signal to noise ratio

Section 5.5: HF Station Installation


  • 00s and 10s: mobile HF radios, all-band, led to growth of mobile HF
  • Power connection must provide 20 A or more with minimal voltage drop (assuming 100 W)
  • best power connection is directly to battery, heavy-gauge wire, fuse in + and - leads both
  • Metal chassis of vehicle not suitable ground
  • Radio power ground connects to battery ground or battery ground strip
  • Antenna systems are limited in space, but can use entire vehicle as antenna (attention to detail)
    • Use an efficient antenna
    • Use solid RF ground connections to vehicle
    • Mount antenna clear of metal surfaces
  • HF mobile noise sources: spark plugs, car accessories, alternators can cause noise, (windows, battery charging systems)
    • Use solid power connections
    • Use battery ground as noise filter
  • RF grounding:
    • Good station ground important to reduce electrical shock
    • At HF frequencies, AC ground conn. can act as antenna!
    • Need to manage RF separately from AC safety ground
  • RF bonding keeps everything at same voltage
    • Reduces current flow
    • Reduces distortion/improper operation
  • Common voltage minimizes voltage hot spots, reduces RF current
  • RF currents can distort audio and lead to incomprehensible digital transmissions
  • Basics:
    • Common bonding to bus bar
    • Short-as-possible straps, wires, etc
    • Big heavy gauge wire
  • Connections to grounding rods short as possible
    • If grounding rod connections are 1/4 wavelength long, will present high impedance and enable high voltages to exist
    • Avoiding high-impedance ground connection difficult for large buildings - in this case keep all equipment at same RF voltage
  • Ground loops - continuous current path (loop) exists around series of equipment enclosures
    • Loop acts as single-turn inductor
    • Voltage picked up from any magnetic fields in loop from low-frequency urrents (AC wiring, power transformers, etc.)
    • Hum or buzz in audio signal results
    • Avoid ground loops with RF bonding bus

RF interference:

  • Sec ARRL RFI handbook
  • Common causes and solutions to RF interference with consumer electronics
  • RF Interference:
    • Fundamental overload - unable to reject strong signals, internal circuits are overloaded; solution added to filters in the path of the signal
    • Common mode/direct pickup - local strong signals are picked up by internal electronics, as common-mode currents for unshielded connections, and conducted into device; solution: add RF chokes or bypass capacitors on the cables/connections picking up the RF current (direct pickup - signal received directly by internal wiring, only solution is shielding)
    • Harmonics - spurious emissions received by TV/electronics; solution: use low-pass filter to remove the spurious emissions (match low-pass filter impedance with feed line impedance)
    • Rectification - poor contacts between two conductors sending RF signals can cause mixer and mixing products from signals, and potentially create interference; solution: find and repair the broken/poor contact
    • Arcing - spark/sustained arc creates radio noise over wide range of frequencies; solution: isolate to single station, request repairs with power company
  • Arcing is caused by poor contacts between any two conductors
  • RF Interference Suppression:
    • Best solution to interference: keep RF signals out of other equipment
    • Next best solution: filter out the RF signals
    • Filters are generally most effective approach
    • Prevent RF current flow by placing inductance/resistance in the path
    • Do this by forming the conductor carrying RF current into an inductor choke (wind it around a ferrite core)
    • Ferrite beads or cores on cables can also prevent RF common mode current from flowing through the outside of cable braid or shields
    • This also works preventing computer signal interference
    • Audio equipment/appliance switch interference can sometimes be eliminated by placing small capacitor (100 pF - 1 nF) bypass capacitor across balanced connections, or from each connection to chassis ground
  • RFI symptoms:
    • CW/FM/data - buzzes, humming, clicks, thumps
    • AM phone - emitting replica of speaker's voice
    • SSB - replica of voice, but with distortion/garbling

Section 5.5 Summary

  • A symptom of transmitted RF being picked up by audio cable carrying AFSK data is: any of the below
    • VOX circuit doesn't un-key transmitter
    • Transmitter signal distorted
    • Frequent connection timeouts
  • To reduce RF interference in audio frequency devices, use a bypass capacitor
  • A cause of interference covering a wide range of frequencies is arcing at a poor electrical connection
  • In audio/telephone circuit, SSB interference sounds like distorted/garbled speech
  • In audio/telephone circuit, CW interference sounds like an on-off humming or clicking
  • If you receive an RF burn when you touch equipment during transmission on HF, assuming equipment connected to grounding rod, then the problem is that the ground wire has high impedance
  • A resonant ground connection can cause high RF voltages on equipment (due to high impedance)
  • To avoid unwanted stray RF, connect all equipment together
  • To reduce RF interference from common-mode current on an audio cable, place ferrite choke on cable
  • To avoid a ground loop, connect all ground conductors to a single point
  • A symptom of a ground loop could be a hum sound on station's transmitted signal
  • For a 100 W HF transceiver on a mobile rig, the best direct, fused power connection is tto the battery using a heavy-gauge wire
  • It is best not to draw 100 W DC from vehicle's aux power socket, because socket wiring not rated to handle high current (20 A)
  • The greatest limitation on an HF mobile transceiver is the antenna system
  • Interference in an HF receiver in a recent-model vehicle may be caused by any of the following:
    • Battery charging system
    • Fuel delivery system
    • Vehicle control computer
  • The impedance of a low-pass filter, as compared to impedance of transmission line, should be about the same
    • "Remember to match the low-pass filter's impedance with the characteristic impedance of the feed line iti s inserted into")
    • Impedance! Not inductance!