# Chapter 5: Radio Signals and Equipment

## Section 5.1: Signal Review

• a radio signal at one frequency, at constant power, is CW - continuous wave
• adding information to a signal (via changes in frequency, phase angle, or amplitude) is modulation
• the method of modulation is asignal's mode
• an unmodulated signal carries no information
• to recover information from a signal is demodulation
• voice mode/phone mode - voice/speech is information
• data mode/digital mode - data is information
• analog - information can be understood by human
• digital - information can be understood by computer

AM

• amplitude modulation
• information contained int he signal's envelope, or maximum instantaneous power for each cycle
• AM signals have a carrier and 2 sidebands
• AM signals with the carrier removed are double sideband DSB
• AM signals with one sideband and the carrier removed are single sideband SSB

angle modulation

• varying freq to add info is frequency modulation FM
• amt that signal frequency varies is called deviation
• phase angle can be varied with respect to reference phase, this is phase modulation
• FM/PM can be decoded with same circuits
• FM: changes amount of time signal takes to make a 360 degree cycle

PM - changes relative phase difference between signal and reference phase

• FM and PM signals have one carrier, multiple sidebands
• FM/PM are constant power (modulated or not)

bandwidth

• definition of bandwidth - width outside of which the average power of the signal is attenuated by 26 dB below the mean power
• typical bandwidth values:
• TV - 6 MHz
• AM - 6 kHz
• FM - 5-16 kHz
• SSB - 2-3 kHz
• Digital - 50-300 Hz
• CW - 100-300 Hz

### Section 5.1 Summary

• The process that changes the phase angle of an RF wave to convey information is phase modulation
• the process that changes instantaneous frequency of RF wave to convey information is frequency modulation
• Instantaneous power level of RF signal used to convey information in amplitude modulation AM
• The phone emission with the narrowest bandwidth is SSB single sideband

## Section 5.2: Radio's Building Bloccks

Oscillators, mixers, multipliers, modulators

Oscillators:

• produce a pure sine wave, as close to 1 frequency as possible
• oscillator has two parts:
• amplifier to increase gain
• feedback circuit to route some output back into input
• if product of amplifier gain and amt of feedback are > 1, circuit's output will be self-sustaining - this is called oscillation
• oscillator output frequency can be fixed or varied

fixed frequency oscillators FFOs: 3 types

• RC (resistors/capacitors)
• LC (inductors/capacitors)
• crystal (acts like LC, orders of magnitude more precise)

variable frequency oscillators VFOs: 3 types

• LC circuit with variable capacitor
• PLL phase locked loop
• DDS direct digital synthesizer (software-controlled, has stability of crystal oscillator)

Mixers:

• changing frequency of signal is key function in RX/TX
• this is what mixer does
• in: f1, f2
• out: f1 +/- f2
• mixers combine 2 frequencies f1 and f2
• combine to form f1 + f2 and f1 - f2
• heterodyning - the mixing of 2 frequencies (f1 +/- f2)
• input f1 is called RF input (transmitted signal)
• input f2 is called local oscillator LO (locally-generated reference signal)
• outputs from mixer are called mixing products

Multipliers:

• this unit creates a harmonic of the input frequency (multiplies by an integer)
• low-frequency oscillators are easier/smaller to build, so run low-frequency oscillator signal through a multiplier to make a VHF/UHF signal

Modulators:

• modulators add information to a carrier signal
• information added to a signal as amplitude, frequency, or phase variations
• input 1 is carrier input f1
• input 2 is modulating input f2
• output is f1 modulated by f2

Amplitude Modulators:

• first created by varying the power supply voltage of a CW signal
• as voltage changes, amplituded of output signal's envelope follows along
• also called plate modulation, or drain modulation, or collector modulation
• plate modulation: voltage being varied connects to a vacuum tube
• drain modulation - voltage being varied connect to transistor's drain
• collector modulation - voltage being varied connects to a transistor's collector
• modulation transformer then adds/subtracts amplified voice signal to power supply voltage
• AM circuits cannot generate SSB signals
• AM, double sideband can be generated by balanced modulator
• balanced modulator:
• input 1: carrier signal f1
• input 2: modulating signal f2
• output signal: double sideband f1 +/- f2
• the pairs of sidebands, above and below, are due to heterodyning, f1 +/- f2
• DSB - double sideband requires a balanced modulator, so the carrier frequency will cancel out
• AM - requires an unbalanced modulator, so the carrier frequency will survive heterodyning

Frequency and Phase Modulators:

• FM - frequency of modulated signal changes with modulating signal's amplitude
• PM - frequency of modulated signal (deviation of signal) is proportional to modulating signal's amplitude and frequency
• FM/PM sound the same, demodulated with same circuit
• angle modulation performed with a reactance modulator
• two types of reactance modulators:
• FM reactance modulators
• PM reactance modulators
• FM reactance modulator: amp feeds into reactance modulator, output is frequency modulated output
• PM reactance modulator: amp and fixed-frequency oscillator feed into reactance modulator, output is phase modulated output

### Section 5.2 Summary

• if a 3 kHz LSB signal has a carrier frequency of 7.178 MHz, it occupies 7.175-7.178 MHz
• if using 3 kHz USB signal on 20 m, how close to edge of band should carrier signal be? 3 kHz below edge of band
• basic components of a sine wave oscillator are an amplifier and a feedback circuit with a filter
• frequency of LC oscillator can vary depending on component ratings - individual inductances and capacitances
• a transceiver controlled by a direct digital synthesizer is that you have stability of a crystal, with variable frequency
• a reactance modulator connected to RF amplifier stage generates phase modulation or frequency modulation
• carrier suppression in SSB phone - the advantage over AM is that transmitter power can be used more efficiently (narrower bandwidth)
• the receiver stage that combines a 14.250 MHz signal with a 13.795 MHz oscillator to produce a 455 kHz intermediate frequency is a mixer (heterodyning)
• the mixing of two signals is called heterodyning
• in a VHF/UHF transmitter (FM), the stage that generates a harmonic of a low-frequency signal is the multiplier

## Section 5.3: Transmitter Structure

transmitters and receivers are assembled from the following building blocks:

am modes

• CW, SSB, and AM are all types of amplitude-modulated signals
• generated by same transmitter structure
• analog transmitters: generate/modify signals with discrete electronic components
• DSP/SDR transmitters perform these operations in software, on a microprocessor

CW transmitters

• oscillator + amplifier
• crystal oscillator restricts operating frequency, but is stable
• variable frequency oscillator VFO controlled transmitter
• oscillator may contain buffer amplifier to protect from chirps - rapid change in frequency (key-down periods due to power supply, or load changes)
• output amplifier: two stages
• driver stage
• power amplifier stage
• VFO transmitter, mixers used to change TX output frequency without changing VFO frequency range
• schematic: VFO has a fixed range, fed into mixer. other feed into mixer is local oscillator - switch between three different crystals. the mixer output is sent to the filter, and combined with the keyer to send out a signal.

SSB transmitter:

• same arrangement, but the VFO is now replaced with a microphone circuit
• input to balanced modulator is carrier signal, plus microphone input
• output is DSB signal, so filter is required to remove the undesired sideband
• USB signals on 20 m, LSB on 80 and 40 m
• mixer then converts signal to correct frequency
• SSB transmitter can unbalance the modulator to generate AM signals
• SSB signals: carrier must be reduced or suppressed to at least 40 dB below signal's peak power output, to prevent interference
• output amplifier must be a linear amplifier, due to rapidly changing speech waveforms
• nonlinear amplifier will distort speech
• CW transmitter turns sine wave on/off, no need to be linear
• SSB/AM stages must all reproduce input signal accurately, via mixing, filtering, amplifying
• distortion in the transmit chain will create suprious signals, harmonics, mixing products, splatter
• SSB bandwidth should be 3 kHz or smaller
• AM bandwidth should be 6 kHz or smaller
• on 60 m, USB signals hsould be 2.8 kHz or narrower

FM transmitters:

• modulation and frequency changes work differently in FM TX than SSB/AM TX
• less expensive implementation of FM:
• generate FM signal at low frequency
• multiply it to reach new band
• for 2 m FM transmitter, modulated oscillator frequency is about 12 MHz, and multiplier selects 12th harmonic for transmission on 2 m (12 x 12 = 144 MHz)
• To transmit a signal at 146.52 MHz, you must use the 12th harmonic, so the oscillator frequency must be adjusted to 146.52/12 = 12.21 MHz
• Deviation from crystal is also multiplied
• to control deviation of 146.52 MHz to within 5 kHz, crystal oscillator deviation should be 5/12 = .416 kHz = 416.7 Hz
• good FCC practice requires bandwidth to be limited
• Carson's Rule: BW = 2 x ( Peak Deviation + Highest Modulating Frequency)
• If FM phone signal peak deviation is 5 kHz, and highest modulating frequency is 3 kHz, bandwidth = 2(5+3) = 16 kHz
• Repeater coordinators use 20 kHz channel, fits 16 kHz wide signal comfortably
• FM and PM phase modulation have constant power, so amplifier does not need to be linear

Signal quality:

• keep signals intelligible and prevent excessive bandwidth
• potential issues:
• overmodulation - AM modes
• Speech processing
• Overdeviation - FM/AM
• key clicks

Overmodulation - AM modes:

• if amplitude of AM or SSB signal is varied excessively in response to modulating signal, result is overmodulation
• overmodulation caused by speaking too loudly or by setting mic or audio gain too high
• overmodulation causes spurious signals in nearby frequencies
• modulation envelope - waveform created by connecting peaks of modulated signal
• cutoff - transmitter is turned off instead of following the modulated signal (floor is too high)
• flag-topping - transmitter reaches max output and cannot increase with signal (ceiling too low)
• transmitted audio is distorted
• spurious signals are created
• distortion products
• splatter
• buckshot
• use oscilloscope to check for clean signal at TX output
• note transmitter settings and meter behavior, and oscilloscope images
• flat topping happens when drive level to transmitter output or external amplifiers is beyond the max power level
• carrier cutoff occurs when output signal is totally cut off between peaks
• use normal speech/audio levels
• use monitor function to check own signal
• ALC - automatic level control
• two tone test for transmitter linearity:
• modulate signal with pair of non-harmonic tones
• adjust transmitter and amplifier for output without any distortion

speech processing:

• average power of SSB signal is low compared to CW
• energy spread over wider spectrum
• makes signals harder to understand through noise
• speech processing increases average power of speech signal without distorting signal
• some processors go between mic and radio, some go between radio and amplifier
• compression - increases gain at low input levels, holds gain constant for hi input levels
• amount of compression mesasured in dB
• if low-level input signal is amplified to 10 dB more gain than high-level signal, you have 10 dB of compression
• overprocesssing can also be an issue
• processed signals require adjustment of transmitter modulation to avoid splatter
• speech processing can increase background noise too
• speech processing requires balance between increase in average power versus reduction in intelligibility

overdeviation

• distortion in FM signals happening due to overmodulation
• instead of envelope distortion, you get frequency deviation
• overdeviation of FM signals will cause interference nearby, just like AM

Key clicks:

• sharp transient clicking sounds heard on frequencies adjacent to CW signals
• caused by transmitter turning on and off
• reduce key clicks by adjusting TX configuration or by modifying keyer's control circuit
• use oscilloscope to monitor CW waveform
• leading adn trailing edges of CW output shoudl be 4-8 ms long, otherwise clicks will be generated from too-rapid on/off
• waveform: key clicks will show up as signals in sidebands

amplifiers:

• hf operators use amps to strength signals
• VHF/UHF amps are solid state bricks
• HF amps use vacuum tube circuits
• SSB modes require linear amplifier, so wave form input not distorted
• amplifier circuit = stage
• four classes of amplifier stages:
• Class A - most linear, least efficient, on all the time, gain is limited
• Class B - push-pull, pair of amplifiers switching on and off with cycle, good efficiency, linearity is possible
• Class AB - midway between A and B, amplifier device is active for more than half of the cycle. Linearity not as good as Class A.
• Class C - active for less than half of cycle, highest efficiecy, only work for CW and FM due to non-linearity

Tuning Linear Amplifier:

• band
• tune
• band - configures input and output impedance matching or filter circuits
• start by setting the band switch properly
• apply drive power to amplifier, wtch current meter
• adjust tune control for a minimum setting, which indicates output matching circuit is resonant with input signal
• this will enable max output power without max plate current being exceeded
• drive power important, esp. for grid-driven amplifier circuits
• too much drive causes excessive grid current
• modern amplifiers have circuitry to protect circuits against excessive grid drive
• operate amp according to mfg specs!
• excessive drive power can also destroy solid state amplifiers with power transistors

neutralization:

• for oscillations, positive feedback must lead to a gain > 1
• HF amplifiers using triode tubes can become self-oscillating at VHF frequencies
• main path for positive feedback in a grid-driven amplifier is inter-electrode capacitance (voltage difference between plate and control grid)
• self-oscillation geneates spurious signals, can damage circuit components
• neutalization: creates negative feedback at VHF - connect an out-of-phase signal with input signal to cancel unwanted positive feedback
• neutralization is performed by connecting small variable apacitor between amplifier's output and input

### Section 5.3 Summary

• Transceiver operated in "split mode" means it transmits/receives on different frequencies
• on a vacuum tube RF power amp, the plate current meter indicates correct plate tuning control when there is a dip or minimum
• use ALC auto level control with RF power amp to reduce distortion due to excessive drive
• in a solid state RF amplifier, excessive drive power can cause damage
• the correct adjustment for the load/coupling control of a vacuum tube RF power amplifier is maximum power output - while not exceeding maximum plate current
• transmitter keying circuits include time delay so that transmit-receive changeover operations can complete properly before RF output is allowed
• common use for a dual VFO feature on transceiver is to allow monitoring of 2 different frequencies
• to conduct a two-tone test, use two non-harmonically related signals
• the two-tone test analyzes transmitter linearity
• on modern transciever, speech processor is used to increase intelligibility of voice signals
• for ssb phone signal, speech processor will increase average power
• incorrectly adjusted speech processor will result in all of these:
• distorted speech
• splatter
• excessive bkgd noise
• efficiency of RF power amplifier is obtained by: Efficiency = (RF output power)/(DC input power)
• Class A linear amplifier has the following characteristic: low distortion (but inefficient)
• Class C power stage is used to amplify CW signals (not SSB, not AM, because nonlinear and distorts speech waveform)
• Amplifier with highest efficiency is Class C, the most non-linear. The least efficient is Class A, the most linear.
• The final amplifier stage of a transmitter is neutralized to eliminate self-oscillations
• a linear amplifier is an amplifier that preserves the output wave form
• in some ssb transmitters, a filter sits between the balanced modulator and the mixer
• in some ssb transmitters, a balanced modulator combines the carrier oscillator and speech amp signals and sends the results to a filter
• an effect of overmodulation is excessive bandwidth
• to adjust proper ALC settings, on ssb, adjust transmit audio or mic gain
• flat topping means signal distorition caused by excessive drive
• an AM signal's modulation envelope is the waveform created by connecting peak values of modulated signal

• mixing of signals is called heterodyning, leads to f1 +/- f2
• superheterodyne receivers are sensitive to very weak signals
• basic circuit:
• RF signals are amplified and sent to mixer.
• LO also sends signal to mixer.
• signal at intermediate frequency IF is produced, filtered and demodulated.
• iF filter removes nearby signals selectively
• IF used because easier to tune filters/hi gain amps for single frequency
• to convert signal at 14.250 to an IF of 455 kHz, local oscillator should be at 14.250 +/- .455 (13.795 or 14.705 MHz)
• to cover entire 20 m band, 14.0 - 14.35, need local oscillator to tune from 13.545 MHz to 13.895 MHz
• Demodulation of amplified IF signal is done by the product detector, a type of mixer
• If AM being used, envelope detector is used for demodulation
• Output of product or envelope detector is used to recover modulating signal
• Product/envelope detector outputs audio signal
• Front end of superheterodyne: antenna feeds into Rf amp. Mixer mixes signal from RF amp and from local oscillator. That is front end.
• Front end processes weak signals at original frequency, so must owrk for wide frequency range and weak/strong signals
• preselector sometimes used between antenna and RF amp to reject strong, out of band signals
• these can fry a receiver if too strong, overwhelming circuitry
• if additional sensitivity needed, preamplifier can be used
• FM receivers: similar to superheterodyne, but key differences
• FM only frequency matters
• special non-linear amplifier called limiter replaces the linear IF amplifier
• limiter: amplifies received signal until all amplitude modulation information (e.g., noise) is removed and only square wave remains, square wave of varying frequency
• audio information: recovered by discriminator or quadrature detector (in place of the product detector in the AM/SSB/CW circuit)

Weaknesses of superheterodyne:

• sum/diff operation means, two signals can generate the same mixing product f1 +/- f2
• two input signal frequencies f1 will add and subtract from f2 to equal a given mixing product
• image - undesired input signal frequency generating an internal frequency signal

DSP - digital signal processing

• alternative to superheterodyne
• converts signals from analog to digital and performs filtering/other functions mathematically in software
• signal that has been operated on is co nverted back into analog for humans or characters for digital modes
• DSP advantages: performance and flexibility
• performance: complicated stuff, just as good as analog
• flexibility: program anything you want
• can react automatically to changes in circuitry based on signal
• common DSP functions:
• signal filtering
• noise reduction
• notch filtering
• audio frequency equalizaiton

Removing interference:

• notch filters - remove signals from very narrow frequency range (e.g., interfering carrier tone)
• passband/IF shift filter - adjusts passband above/below carrier frequency to avoid interfering signals
• reverse sideband - receive CW signals above/below displayed carrier frequency; signals below/above carrier will be filtered

• receivers use gain to make signals audible
• too little/too much gain causes problems
• RF gain control used to tune into signals
• automatic gain control: vary gain to maintain constant signal volume
• fast AGC for CW, slow AGC for voice
• S-meter: signal gain, indicates voltage papplied to an amplifier
• S-meter measured in S-units, 1 S-unit = 6 dB (4x increase in power)
• S-meter midpoint of S-9: "S-9 +20 dB" = signal 20 dB (100 x) stronger than S-9 signal

• common form of non-linearity is overload or compression (a.k.a. front-end overload)
• if signal is too strong for receiver to handle, distortion results
• filter out strong signals
• reduce receiver gain with attenuator circuit
• linearity also affected by preamp: preamp increases sensitivity to overload
• noise blankers can confuse noise pulses with strong signals

### Section 5.4 Summary

• a notch filter is added to HF transceivers to reduce interference from carriers in receiver passband
• when receiving CW signals, using reverse sideband reduces/eliminates interference from other signals
• on a receiver, the IF shift control helps avoid interference from stations close to receive frequency
• on an HF transciever, the attenuator function will reduce signal overload due to strong signals
• a digital signal processor can be used to rpocess signals 9e.g., remove noise)
• on a receiver, a DSP IF filter has advantage over analog filter in the design and bandwidth of filters
• to perform automatic notching of interfering carriers, use a DSP filter
• an S-meter measures voltage supplied to RF gain to maintain a certain signal strength level (S-meter measures signal strength)
• a signal that reads "S-9 +20dB" or "20 dB over S9" will be +20 dB (or 100x) more powerful
• an S-meter is found in a receiver
• a single S-unit represents a 4x change in signal strength
• transmitter power output must be increased x4 to raise S-meter from S8 to S9
• Circuit that processes signals from the RF amp and the LO and then sends it on to the IF filter in a superheterodyne receiver is the mixer
• the circuit that combines signals from IF amp and BFO (beat freq. osc.) and sends results on to AF amp is the product detector
• the simplest superheterodyne receiver consists of:
• HF oscillator
• Mixer
• Detector
• The circuit in an FM receiver that convets signals from IF amp to audio is the disfriminator
• For a digital signal processor IF filter, you need all of the following:
• Analog to Digital
• Digital to Analog
• DSP chip
• DSP filtering is accomplished by converting signal from analog to digital, and using digital processing
• The term SDR refers to a radio in which most processing is done in software
• If a receiver mixes a 13.800 MHz VFO with a 14.255 MHz received signal, and produces a 455 kHz intermediate frequency signal, the type of interference that a signal at 13.345 MHz will produce will be image interference/image response
• f1 - LO = IF
• LO - f2 = IF
• This is imaging
• it is important to match receiver bandwidth with operating mode because it gives the best signal to noise ratio

## Section 5.5: HF Station Installation

Mobile:

• 00s and 10s: mobile HF radios, all-band, led to growth of mobile HF
• Power connection must provide 20 A or more with minimal voltage drop (assuming 100 W)
• best power connection is directly to battery, heavy-gauge wire, fuse in + and - leads both
• Metal chassis of vehicle not suitable ground
• Radio power ground connects to battery ground or battery ground strip
• Antenna systems are limited in space, but can use entire vehicle as antenna (attention to detail)
• Use an efficient antenna
• Use solid RF ground connections to vehicle
• Mount antenna clear of metal surfaces
• HF mobile noise sources: spark plugs, car accessories, alternators can cause noise, (windows, battery charging systems)
• Use solid power connections
• Use battery ground as noise filter
• RF grounding:
• Good station ground important to reduce electrical shock
• At HF frequencies, AC ground conn. can act as antenna!
• Need to manage RF separately from AC safety ground
• RF bonding keeps everything at same voltage
• Reduces current flow
• Reduces distortion/improper operation
• Common voltage minimizes voltage hot spots, reduces RF current
• RF currents can distort audio and lead to incomprehensible digital transmissions
• Basics:
• Common bonding to bus bar
• Short-as-possible straps, wires, etc
• Big heavy gauge wire
• Connections to grounding rods short as possible
• If grounding rod connections are 1/4 wavelength long, will present high impedance and enable high voltages to exist
• Avoiding high-impedance ground connection difficult for large buildings - in this case keep all equipment at same RF voltage
• Ground loops - continuous current path (loop) exists around series of equipment enclosures
• Loop acts as single-turn inductor
• Voltage picked up from any magnetic fields in loop from low-frequency urrents (AC wiring, power transformers, etc.)
• Hum or buzz in audio signal results
• Avoid ground loops with RF bonding bus

RF interference:

• Sec ARRL RFI handbook
• Common causes and solutions to RF interference with consumer electronics
• RF Interference:
• Fundamental overload - unable to reject strong signals, internal circuits are overloaded; solution added to filters in the path of the signal
• Common mode/direct pickup - local strong signals are picked up by internal electronics, as common-mode currents for unshielded connections, and conducted into device; solution: add RF chokes or bypass capacitors on the cables/connections picking up the RF current (direct pickup - signal received directly by internal wiring, only solution is shielding)
• Harmonics - spurious emissions received by TV/electronics; solution: use low-pass filter to remove the spurious emissions (match low-pass filter impedance with feed line impedance)
• Rectification - poor contacts between two conductors sending RF signals can cause mixer and mixing products from signals, and potentially create interference; solution: find and repair the broken/poor contact
• Arcing - spark/sustained arc creates radio noise over wide range of frequencies; solution: isolate to single station, request repairs with power company
• Arcing is caused by poor contacts between any two conductors
• RF Interference Suppression:
• Best solution to interference: keep RF signals out of other equipment
• Next best solution: filter out the RF signals
• Filters are generally most effective approach
• Prevent RF current flow by placing inductance/resistance in the path
• Do this by forming the conductor carrying RF current into an inductor choke (wind it around a ferrite core)
• Ferrite beads or cores on cables can also prevent RF common mode current from flowing through the outside of cable braid or shields
• This also works preventing computer signal interference
• Audio equipment/appliance switch interference can sometimes be eliminated by placing small capacitor (100 pF - 1 nF) bypass capacitor across balanced connections, or from each connection to chassis ground
• RFI symptoms:
• CW/FM/data - buzzes, humming, clicks, thumps
• AM phone - emitting replica of speaker's voice
• SSB - replica of voice, but with distortion/garbling

### Section 5.5 Summary

• A symptom of transmitted RF being picked up by audio cable carrying AFSK data is: any of the below
• VOX circuit doesn't un-key transmitter
• Transmitter signal distorted
• Frequent connection timeouts
• To reduce RF interference in audio frequency devices, use a bypass capacitor
• A cause of interference covering a wide range of frequencies is arcing at a poor electrical connection
• In audio/telephone circuit, SSB interference sounds like distorted/garbled speech
• In audio/telephone circuit, CW interference sounds like an on-off humming or clicking
• If you receive an RF burn when you touch equipment during transmission on HF, assuming equipment connected to grounding rod, then the problem is that the ground wire has high impedance
• A resonant ground connection can cause high RF voltages on equipment (due to high impedance)
• To avoid unwanted stray RF, connect all equipment together
• To reduce RF interference from common-mode current on an audio cable, place ferrite choke on cable
• To avoid a ground loop, connect all ground conductors to a single point
• A symptom of a ground loop could be a hum sound on station's transmitted signal
• For a 100 W HF transceiver on a mobile rig, the best direct, fused power connection is tto the battery using a heavy-gauge wire
• It is best not to draw 100 W DC from vehicle's aux power socket, because socket wiring not rated to handle high current (20 A)
• The greatest limitation on an HF mobile transceiver is the antenna system
• Interference in an HF receiver in a recent-model vehicle may be caused by any of the following:
• Battery charging system
• Fuel delivery system
• Vehicle control computer
• The impedance of a low-pass filter, as compared to impedance of transmission line, should be about the same
• "Remember to match the low-pass filter's impedance with the characteristic impedance of the feed line iti s inserted into")
• Impedance! Not inductance!